The WordPress merging problem

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WordPress is approximately the most popular CMS out there. I've worked with it plenty over the years, off and on, as clients, employers and others have needed websites.

After a while every WordPress site has ended up feeling slightly sticky, icky and annoying to deal with in the longer run. So I don't really recommend it these days. It remains a popular choice. Because people don't ask me first which is probably reasonable.

Note: This website does not run on WordPress. But it is only edited by me so none of this post is relevant there.

I honestly don't have a good option for you right now if you want a good CMS. If you have an option for me, let me know at Be warned that I'd rather not use something based on Node.js or PHP as a matter of preference. And the use-case I want a CMS for is to have something I can hand to non-technical people that need to manage a website and for some reason or other will not just pay for something like Squarespace (not sponsored, they're fine in my experience). From talking to people about things like Netlify CMS they don't quite scratch that non-technical user itch. Would love to hear more about that though.

I wrote more extensively about this in my newsletter and its not what I want to cover here. To the point! I recently encountered what seems to be a mostly intractable problem for anyone attempting to run WordPress as a software development project and a serious piece of infrastructure rather than a quick-and-dirty, deploy-and-close-your-eyes CMS install.

So you want your developers to be working on the pre-release behind-the-scenes themeing of a new campaign page. There is the page itself, maybe some custom blocks, maybe som asset files that should be uploaded, some theme changes. This all happens on your development environment. Because you don't want to experiment with your theme in production. Fair enough. You might even track code changes with git.

Meanwhile, in production, your webmasters or other editor types are busy authoring, editing, fixing and managing the site. They move a block. They touch up some page text. They post new content. All of this work is critical. It is the actual purpose of the site's very existence.

Your web developers or designers are done. They call you and say "hey! server-guy, we're ready, deploy our stuff please :)" and you might think to yourself "I would have scripted this to be a single-step or even automatic". That was my thinking. I tried to script it.

WordPress stores pretty much everything in the database. It is common practice when moving a WP site from development to production to run a global find and replace on the database to correct all references to specific domain names. Because the database is full of denormalized data that might reference the domain, URLs and much more.

So now you have two databases that are out of step and there are changes you want to use from both. Git does not solve this, even if you dump it to a file.

For one thing all "content types" have their content items stored in a table called wp_posts where they all get a numeric auto-incremented ID. This ID sequence will be out of whack between your environments. Supposedly the import/export content feature should solve this but it skips some data and I could not make it work overall.

The least risky and most reliable way of "deploying" changes I've found is to copy the code over to production and then repeat all database-related changes manually. Which means, you better keep a list. If you've worked with automation, testing, devops, any of it. This is madness.

I put some research into this because I couldn't believe this issue wasn't somehow resolved. There must be a good practice. There are huge sites using this CMS. How do they do it? No clue. Maybe they restrict devs to specific tables, they probably run a static site generator plugin, they probably do all sorts of odd things to make it work reliably. Or they are holding on for dear life and hoping for the best.

If you can divide the domains so that developers do no database changes and editors cannot touch anything code-related you can make it work. But this means that any change to block structures and that sort of configured layout and any custom blocks needed must be repeated in production. You rely on human memory and diligence which often works but is very inconvenient. The cognitive burden of figuring out what steps must be taken on which environment is dangerous. Arbitrary pieces of UI are now no-go zones for different workers but the CMS won't tell you which is which and some plugins definitely straddle that boundary. Mistakes can cause fairly serious problems. I find this untenable.

The most up-to-date overview of managing this issue that I found was this blog post which basically concludes that there is no silver bullet, or in my eyes, no proper solution.

Looking for WordPress devops I found a few breathless posts about "oh yeah, do this with Git and then maybe some Docker and you can use this CI and this CD and this service is fabulous for jiggling your kerfuffles and in part 2 I will handle merging multiple environments". I found multiple posts that intended to write a part 2 and never finished it. I can see why. This is one of them that seemed promising until I found the comments about part 2. Another one (link rotted, was "") mentions the issues and doesn't really mention solving them but the part 2 link is dead, so I don't know. Turns out proper automation of WordPress might be hard.

If you are a developer and are the single arbiter of everything about a site this is not hard. But you might as well use something else in that case, an SSG will often serve you better. If you can stop your client from updating a site while you change things this is also manageable but then you might not have a very interesting site on your hands.

I don't find this an acceptable level for software development on one of the most well-used and most useful pieces of open source web application software out there. WordPress has a great reputation among non-technical users and a fairly strong one among techies. You need some painful experience with it and some experience on the alternative ways of running software application deployments to reliably see the madness seeping through.

I realize that when WordPress was released in 2003 the state of the art looked different and I applaud that they haven't broken much compatibility moving forward. WordPress is a big achievement. I would just never choose it today and I cannot recommend it today. And that concerns me. Especially as I don't see any strong options that can replace it. How would you run a website for non-technical editors today where you didn't have to sweat every deploy?

I have more to say on this website topic. Expect more posts on other slices of this particular pie.

If you do know of an option, or if I have missed the solution to this problem, please let me know at or @lawik on Twitter. If you want more of my writing I have a non-tracking newsletter which usually comes with podcast recommendations and more in-depth thinking. Often about sustainability in software.

Underjord is a 4 people team doing Elixir consulting and contract work. If you like the writing you should really try the code. See our services for more information.

Note: Or try the videos on the YouTube channel.